Punishment in middle shool : social determinants and interpretation of them
This research studies the impact of sociodemographic and schooling-related variables (social class, gender, age, scholastic performance, type of school, ethnic group, behaviour in class) on the probability of pupils being punished. The source data for the study are answers to a survey of 668 pupils in second and fourth forms of five middle schools with populations that vary greatly in terms of social make-up and scholastic performance. Multivariate analysis allows for identifying the specific impact of each sociodemographic and schooling variable. All else equal, the probability of being punished for most types of punishment depends mainly on pupil’s school performance, sex, social origins, school pupil is enrolled in, and behaviour in class. Ethnic group does not affect probability of being punished, contrary to what previous studies may have concluded.