National and European identity. A study of their meanings and interrelationships
In this article, we analyse two questions : 1) the central components of national identity ; 2) the relationship between national and European orientation. The empirical analysis of this study is based on the module « National Identity II 2003 » of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), carried out in 21 European countries. In theoretical discussions, a distinction is often made between the concept of state nation and ethnic or cultural nation. The factor analysis as well as the multi-level regression, however, show that these concepts are not distinct in the minds of the general public. Elements of both concepts are equally important. Particularly more traditional social groups (women, elderly, Catholics) support both concepts. They are also determined by country specific structural and institutional characteristics. Furthermore, we found a complementary relationship between local, regional, national and European orientation. However, the attachment to the nation is much stronger than to Europe.